To Peinado and Fernandes (2012) the theme has been used strategic planning, widespread and researched by large companies for a long time, however, in recent years the concern with the study of strategic planning by micro and small enterprises has been disseminated to every day. As Bonfa (2011), the search for competitiveness of organizations is in a constant, it is essential to ensure their survival, micro, and small enterprises have an important representation in the economic advancement of a nation. For Dias, Sauaia and Yoshizaki (2013), we are experiencing the era of rapid access to information and customization of products and services. The advancement of the economy in developing countries is related to the creation of companies, among them, the micro and small, yielding consecutive work and income for the economically active population, achieving with these countries can develop more and better economically, improving its strategic placement in the world economy. Currently, Porter (2009) states that after the competition has intensified, extending the last decades in almost all areas, this assertion becomes even more pertinent. The competition has invaded all geographic areas, forcing organizations to compete among themselves in order to maintain or increase their levels of prosperity. This forced many sectors of society to seek and disputing the various resources they need, where they are becoming increasingly scarce. Noting that this type of dispute becomes more intensive in micro and small enterprises, due to the fact the large amount of competitors in the same business.
As Porter (2009), today is companies, in their various spheres, they need to compete to generate value. Where value is the power to accept or to overcome the desires of the clients efficiently. Organizations should create value for customers and they need to be attracted by the actions generated by businesses. This can be implemented in a planned and orchestrated by the companies that produce or sell goods and services. To address these needs, and meet those demands, is that organizations should plan strategically. Migliato (2004) says that strategic planning for micro and small businesses, starts in a successive process of interaction between organization and environment, event partly explained by the complexity, scope and classification of certain managers. Since strategic planning is a management process that allows locating the direction to be followed by the organization, to improve the interaction with the environment, considering the capacity of the organization to adapt to this method.
In Brazil, according SEBRAE-NA (2013), nine out of ten companies are considered as micro or small enterprises. The great thing is that these organizations often cannot handle the normal pressures of the succession of days and they cease closing their doors. For Costa, Bandeira-de-Mello and Marcon (2013) companies generally perform their daily functions autonomously, without the aid of any entity. According to Merino and Pastorino (2013) larger organizations relate better with these issues when compared to micro and small enterprises, as these because they have greater managerial sophistication or because they have greater purchasing power, able to plan and organize better. There are several factors causing the failure of micro and small enterprises, services and jobs are closed, items or services that are no longer offered to the population, finally a misuse of resources that make up make these do not continue thriving or even have their activities stopped.
Alperstedt and Quintella (2010) emphasize that people depend on companies than any other organization to achieve their livelihood. However, several managers of micro and small businesses argue that the instability of the economy would be the main reason for the closure of their companyÃ¢â‚¬â„¢s activities. Problems acquiring financing, high interest rates, a fall in purchasing power of the population. However, this does not show us all the reality of events, because these factors are common to all and occur largely due to mismanagement of micro and small enterprises. The lack of planning is also a factor of considerable importance, because managers cannot predict future events and are not organized to act to prevent undigested surprises in the operation and management of your enterprise.